NASA Satellite Breaks from Orbit around Earth, Heads to Moon
Wellington, New Zealand, 4 Jul (ONA) --- A satellite the size of a microwave oven today successfully broke free from its orbit around Earth and is headed toward the moon, the latest step in NASA’s plan to land astronauts on the lunar surface again.
It’s been an unusual journey already for the Capstone satellite. It was launched six days ago from New Zealand’s Mahia Peninsula by the company Rocket Lab in one of their small Electron rockets. It will take another four months for the satellite to reach the moon, as it cruises along using minimal energy.
If the rest of the mission is successful, the Capstone satellite will send back vital information for months as the first to take a new orbit around the moon called a near-rectilinear halo orbit: a stretched-out egg shape with one end of the orbit passing close to the moon and the other far from it.
Eventually, NASA plans to put a space station called Gateway into the orbital path, from which astronauts can descend to the moon’s surface as part of its Artemis program.
The Electron rocket that launched 28 June 2022 from New Zealand was carrying a second spacecraft called Photon, which separated after nine minutes. The satellite was carried for six days in Photon, with the spacecraft’s engines firing periodically to raise its orbit farther and farther from Earth.
A final engine burst today allowed Photon to break from Earth’s gravitational pull and send the satellite on its way. The plan now is for the 25-kilogram (55-pound) satellite to far overshoot the moon before falling back into the new lunar orbit on 13 November 2022. The satellite will use tiny amounts of fuel to make a few planned trajectory course corrections along the way.